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Norton L, Kazazian K, Gofton T, Debicki DB, Fernández-Espejo D, Peelle JE, Thenayan EA, Young GB, Owen AM. Functional neuroimaging as an assessment tool in critically ill patients. Annals of Neurology,

Calzolari S, Jalali R, Fernandez-Epejo D. Characterising stationary and dynamic effective connectivity changes in the motor network during and after tDCS [Preprint]. 

Fischer D, Newcombe V, Fernández-Espejo D, Snider SB. Applications of advanced MRI to disorders of consciousness. Semin Neurol. 2022 Jul 5. doi:10.1055/a-1892-1894


Calzolari S, Boneva S, Fernández-Espejo D. Investigating the shift between externally and internally oriented cognition; a novel task-switching paradigm [Preprint]

Coulborn S, Fernández-Espejo D. DLPFC-tDCS unable to modulate mind-wandering propensity nor underlying functional or effective brain connectivity. [Preprint]

Aloi D, Jalali R, Tilsley P, Miall RC, Fernández-Espejo D. tDCS modulates effective connectivity during motor command following; a potential therapeutic target for disorders of consciousness. NeuroImage, 2022 Feb 15;247:118781.


Andrews L, Fernández-Espejo D. How Non-invasive Stimulation Can Inform Our Understanding of the Brain. Encyclopedia of Behavioral Neuroscience, 2nd edition (Second Edition) 2022, Pages 188-196.


Coulborn S, Taylor C, Naci L, Owen AM, Fernández-Espejo D. Disruptions in effective connectivity within and between default mode network and anterior forebrain mesocircuit in prolonged disorders of consciousness. Brain Sci., 2021, 11(6), 749;  


Aloi D, Incisa della Rocchetta A, Ditchfield A, Coulborn S, Fernández-Espejo D. Therapeutic use of transcranial direct current stimulation in the rehabilitation of prolonged disorders of consciousness. Front. Neurol., 2021.


Coulborn S, Bowman H, Miall RC, Fernandez-Espejo D. Effect of tDCS over the right inferior parietal lobule on mind-wandering propensity. Front Hum Neurosci., 2020:

Fernández-Espejo D, Aloi D, Rocchetta AId, Hoad D, Greenwood R, Playford ED, Cruse D. Exploring the neural, behavioural, and clinical effects of transcranial direct current stimulation in patients with a Prolonged Disorder of Consciousness; protocol for a double-blind randomised crossover feasibility study [Study protocol]. Preprint: 


Stafford CA, Owen AM, Fernández-Espejo D. The neural basis of external responsiveness in prolonged disorders of consciousness. Neuroimage: Clinical (2019):101791.

Demertzi A, Tagliazucchi E, Dehaene S, Deco G, Barttfeld P, Raimondo F, Martial C, Fernández-Espejo D, Rohaut B, Voss HU, Schiff ND, Owen AM, Laureys S, Naccache L, and Sitt JD. Human consciousness is supported by dynamic complex patterns of brain signal coordination. Science Advances (2019): 5(2),eaat7603. DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aat7603


Cruse, D., Fattizzo, M., Owen, A. M. & Fernandez-Espejo, D. Why use a mirror to assess visual pursuit in prolonged disorders of consciousness? Evidence from healthy control participants. 24 Jan 2017 In : BMC Neurology. 17, 14. link

Gibson RM, Chennu S, Fernández-Espejo D, Naci L, Owen AM, and Cruse D. Is command following unrelated to top-down attention in consciousness disorders? - Reply. Annals of Neurology. 2017. Jan;81(1):160-161. doi: 10.1002/ana.24827


Gibson RM, Chennu S, Fernández-Espejo D, Naci L, Owen AM, and Cruse D. Somatosensory attention identifies both overt and covert awareness in disorders of consciousness. Annals of Neurology. 2016; 73(5):608-9. doi: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2016.0143. link

Fernández-Espejo D, Owen AM. Peripheral Causes of Cognitive Motor Dissociation in Patients With Vegetative or Minimally Conscious State—Reply . JAMA Neurol. 2016; 73(5):608-9. doi:10.1001/jamaneurol.2016.0143. link 





Lant ND, Gonzalez-Lara LE, Owen AM, Fernandez-Espejo D. Relationship between the anterior forebrain mesocircuit and the default mode network in the structural bases of disorders of consciousness. Neuroimage: Clinical 2016;10:27-35. link


Fernández-Espejo D, Rossit S, Owen AM. A Thalamocortical Mechanism for the Absence of Overt Motor Behavior in Covertly Aware Patients. JAMA Neurology 2015, Published online October 19, 2015. doi:10.1001/jamaneurol.2015.2614. link


Osborne N, Owen AM and Fernández-Espejo D. The dissociation between command following and communication in disorders of consciousness: an fMRI study in healthy subjects. Front. Hum. Neurosci. 2015; 9:493. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2015.00493 link


Cavaliere C, Aiello M, Di Perri C , Fernandez-Espejo D, Owen AM, Soddu A. Diffusion tensor imaging and white matter abnormalities in patients with disorders of consciousness. Frontiers in Neuroscience 2015;8:1028. link


Graham M, Weijer C, Cruse D, Fernandez-Espejo D, Gofton T, Gonzalez-Lara L, Lazosky A, Naci A, Norton L, Peterson A, Speechley KN, Young B, Owen AM. An Ethics of Welfare for Patients Diagnosed as Vegetative with Covert Awareness. AJOB Neuroscience 2015;6:31-41. pdf


Graham M, Weijer C, Peterson A, Naci L, Cruse D, Fernández-Espejo D, Gonzalez-Lara L, Owen AM. Acknowledging Awareness: Informing Families of Individual Research Results for Patients in the Vegetative State. Journal of Medical Ethics 2015;41:534-538 . link





Gibson RM, Fernández-Espejo D, Gonzalez-Lara L, Kwan BY, Lee DH, Owen AM, Cruse D. Multiple tasks and neuroimaging modalities are required in order to detect covert awareness in patients with Disorders of Consciousness. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 2014;8:950. link


Weijer C, Peterson A, Webster F, Graham M, Cruse D, Fernández-Espejo D, Gofton T, Gonzalez-Lara LE, Lazosky A, Naci L, Norton L, Speechley K, Young B, Owen AM. Ethics of neuroimaging after serious brain injury. BMC Medical Ethics 2014;15:41. link


Fernández-Espejo D, Norton L, Owen AM. The clinical utility of fMRI for identifying covert awareness in the vegetative state: a comparison of sensitivity between 3T and 1.5T. PlosONE 2014; 9(4): e95082. link





Fernández-Espejo D, Owen AM. Detecting awareness after severe brain injury. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 2013;14(11):801-9. pdf


Sahuquillo J, Benejam B, Junqué C, Fernández-Espejo D, Poca MA. Brain activation during speech perception in a patient with a massive left hemisphere infarction. Brain injury 2013;27(12):1470-4 . pdf


Peterson A, Naci L, Weijer C, Cruse D, Fernández-Espejo D, Graham M, Owen AM. Assessing decision making capacity in the disorder of consciousness patient AJOB-Neuroscience 2013; 4(4):3-14. pdf


Cruse D, Chennu S, Chatelle C, Bekinschtein TA, Fernández-Espejo D, Pickard JD, Laureys S, Owen AM. Reanalysis of "Bedside detection of awareness in the vegetative state: a cohort study" - Authors' reply. Lancet, 2013;381(9863):291-2. link


Hampshire A, Parkin B, Cusack R, Fernández Espejo D, Allanson J, Kamau E, Pickard JD, Owen AM. Assessing residual reasoning ability in overtly non-communicative patients using fMRI. NeuroImage: Clinical, 2013;2:174-183. link


Palacios EM, Sala-Llonch R, Junque C, Fernández-Espejo D, Roig T, Tormos JM, et al. Long term declarative memory deficits in diffuse TBI: Correlations with cortical thickness, white matter integrity and hippocampal volume. Cortex, 2013;49(3):646-57. pdf





Cruse D, Chennu S, Fernández-Espejo D, Payne WL, Young GB, Owen AM. Detecting awareness in the Vegetative State: EEG evidence for attempted movements to command. Plos One, 2012;7(11):e49933. link


Fernández-Espejo D, Soddu A, Cruse D, Palacios EM, Junque C, Vanhaudenhuyse A, Rivas E, Newcombe V, Menon D, Pickard J, Laureys S, Owen A. A role for the default mode network in the structural bases of disorders of consciousness. Annals of Neurology, 2012;72(3):335-43. pdf

Zubiaurre-Elorza L, Soria-Pastor S, Junque C, Fernández-Espejo D, Segarra D, Bargallo N, Macaya A. Thalamic changes in a preterm sample with periventricular leukomalacia: correlation with white matter integrity and cognitive outcome at school age. Pediatric Research 2012; 71:354-360. pdf


Cruse D, Chennu S, Chatelle C, Fernández-Espejo D, Bekinschtein TA, Pickard JD, Laureys S, Owen AM. The relationship between aetiology and covert cognition in the minimally conscious state. Neurology 2012; 78:816-22.  pdf





Cruse D, Chennu S, Chatelle C, Bekinschtein TA, Fernández-Espejo D, Pickard JD, Laureys S, Owen AM. Bedside detection of awareness in the vegetative state. The Lancet 2011; 378:2088-94. pdf


Palacios EM, Fernández-Espejo D, Junque C, Sanchez-Carrion R, Roig T, Tormos JM, Bargallo N, Vendrell P. Diffusion tensor imaging differences relate to memory deficits in diffuse traumatic brain injury. BMC Neurology 2011; 11:24. link


Bruno MA*, Fernández-Espejo D*, Lehembre R, Tshibanda L, Vanhaudenhuyse A, Gosseries O, Lommers E, Napolitani M,  Noirhomme Q,  Boly M,  Papa M, Owen A, Laureys S, Soddu A. Multi-modal neuroimaging in patients with disorders of consciousness showing “functional hemispherectomy”. Progress in Brain Research 2011; 193:323-33. (*equal authorship) pdf


Fernández-Espejo D, Bekinschtein T, Monti MM, Pickard JD, Junque C, Coleman MR, Owen AM. Diffusion weighted imaging distinguishes the vegetative state from the minimally conscious state. Neuroimage 2011; 54:103-12. pdf


Arenaza-Urquijo EM, Bosch B, Sala-Llonch R, Solé-Padullés C, Junqué C, Fernández-Espejo D, Bargalló N, Rami L, Molinuevo JL, Bartrés-Faz D. Specific anatomical associations between white matter integrity and cognitive reserve in normal and cognitively impaired elders. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 2011; 19(1):33-42. pdf


Junqué C, Palacios EM, Fernández-Espejo D, Tormos JM, Sánchez-Carrión R, Roig T. Impairment of cerebral connectivity in patients with chronic and severe brain injury. A diffusion tensor imaging study (article in Spanish). Trauma 2011; 22(2):113-121.





Fernández-Espejo D, Junque C, Cruse D, Bernabeu M, Roig T, Fabregas N, Rivas E, Mercader JM. Combination of diffusion tensor and functional magnetic resonance imaging during recovery from the vegetative state. BMC Neurology 2010; 10:77. link


Fernández-Espejo D, Junque C, Bernabeu M, Roig-Rovira T, Vendrell P, Mercader JM. Reductions of thalamic volume and regional shape changes in the vegetative and the minimally conscious states. Journal of Neurotrauma 2010; 27:1187–1193. pdf


Bosch B, Bartres-Faz D, Rami L, Arenaza-Urquijo E M, Fernández-Espejo D, Junqué C, Solé-Padullés C, Sánchez-Valle R, Bargalló N, Falcón C, Molinuevo JL. Cognitive reserve modulates task-induced activations and deactivations in healthy elders, amnestic mild cognitive impairment and mild Alzheimer's disease. Cortex 2010;46(4):451-61. pdf





Fernández-Espejo D, Junqué C, Vendrell P, Bernabeu M, Roig T, Bargalló N, Mercader JM. Cerebral response to speech in vegetative and minimally conscious states after traumatic brain injury. Brain Injury 2008; 22(11):882-90. pdf


Sanchez-Carrión R, Fernández-Espejo D, Junqué J, Falcón C, Bargalló N, Roig-Rovira T, Bernabeu M, Tormos JM, Vendrell P. A longitudinal fMRI study of working memory in severe TBI patients with diffuse axonal injury.  Neuroimage 2008, 43(3): 421-9. pdf


Sánchez-Carrión R, Vendrell P, Junqué C, Fernández-Espejo D, Falcón C, Bargalló N, Roig-Rovira T, Enseñat-Cantallops A, Bernabeu M. Frontal hypoactivation on functional MRI in working memory after severe diffuse traumatic brain injury. Journal of Neurotrauma 2008; 25 (5): 497-494. pdf



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